Articles

## MIMO with ML equalization

We have discussed quite a few receiver structures for a 2×2 MIMO channel namely, (a) Zero Forcing (ZF) equalization (b) Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) equalization (c) Zero Forcing equalization with Successive Interference Cancellation (ZF-SIC) (d) ZF-SIC with optimal ordering and (e) MIMO with MMSE SIC and optimal ordering From the above receiver structures, we…

## Polyphase filters for interpolation

In typical digital signal processing applications, there arises need to increase the sampling frequency of a signal sequence, where the higher sampling frequency is an integer multiple of the original sampling frequency i.e for a signal sequence with a sampling frequency , change the sampling frequency to , where is an integer.

## Noise Figure of resistor network

The post on thermal noise described the noise produced by resistor  ohms over bandwidth  at temperature Kelvin. In this post, let us define the noise voltage at the input and output of a resistor network and further use it to define the Noise Figure of such a network.

## Join dspLog at Google FriendConnect

We have installed Google FriendConnect on dspLog.com. With Google Friend Connect, you can: (a) You can interact with other members who have similiar interests. You will come to know the list of other sites (apart from dspLog.com) where the members have joined. You can add a member as a friend and so on. (b) You…

## Understanding an OFDM transmission

Let us try to understand simulation of a typical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission defined per IEEE 802.11a specification. Orthogonal pulses In a previous post (here ), we have understood that the minimum frequency separation for two sinusoidals with arbitrary phases to be orthogonal is , where is the symbol period. In Orthogonal Frequency…

## Using CORDIC for phase and magnitude computation

In a previous post (here), we looked at using CORDIC (Co-ordinate Rotation by DIgital Computer) for understanding how a complex number can be rotated by an angle without using actual multipliers. Let us know try to understand how we can use CORDIC for finding the phase and magnitude of a complex number. Basics The CORDIC…

## Noise Figure of cascaded stages

Following the discussion on thermal noise and it’s modeling and noise figure computation for a simple resistor network, in this article let us discuss the Noise Figure of cascaded stages.

## BER for BPSK in Rayleigh channel

Long back in time we discussed the BER (bit error rate) for BPSK modulation in a simple AWGN channel (time stamps states August 2007). Almost an year back! It high time we discuss the BER for BPSK in a Rayleigh multipath channel. In a brief discussion on Rayleigh channel, wherein we stated that a circularly…

## Article in DSPDesignLine.com: M-QAM symbol error

Its been a nice week for me, wherein I guest posted an article in DSPDesignLine.com. 🙂 The article derives the theoretical symbol error rate for M-QAM modulation. The theoretical results are further supplemented by Matlab/Octave simulation scripts. Those who are familiar with derivation of symbol error rate for 16-QAM modulation will find the equations easy…

## Raised cosine filter for transmit pulse shaping

In the previous post on transmit filtering using Nyquist pulse, we had briefly learned that the information symbol with a symbol period can be transmitted without inter symbol interference (ISI) by using Nyquist pulse, . The resultant waveform is ideally bandlimited to frequencies from Hz to Hz. However, in typical transmission schemes, we do not…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q47 (math)

Question 47 on math from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q47. Given that and , the value of is (A)  (B)  (C)  (D)  Solution To answer this question, we need to refer to Cayley Hamilton Theorem. This is discussed briefly in Pages 310-311 of Introduction to Linear Algebra, Glibert Strang (buy…

## Scaling factor in QAM

When QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is used, typically one may find a scaling factor associated with the constellation mapping operation. It may be reasonably obvious that this scaling factor is for normalizing the average energy to one. This post attempts to compute the average energy of the 16-QAM, 64-QAM and M-QAM constellation (where is a…

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 16-QAM

Given that we have went over the symbol error probability for 4-PAM and symbol error rate for 4-QAM , let us extend the understanding to find the symbol error probability for 16-QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). Consider a typical 16-QAM modulation scheme where the alphabets (Refer example 5-37 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). are used.

## Bounds on Communication based on Shannon’s capacity

This is the second post in the series aimed at developing a better understanding of Shannon’s capacity equation. In this post let us discuss the bounds on communication given the signal power and bandwidth constraint. Further, the following writeup is based on Section 12.6 from Fundamentals of Communication Systems by John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi