## Symbol Error rate for QAM (16, 64, 256,.., M-QAM)

In May 2008, we derived the theoretical symbol error rate for a general M-QAM modulation (in  Embedded.com, DSPDesignLine.com and dsplog.com) under Additive White Gaussian Noise. While re-reading that post, felt that the article is nice and warrants a re-run, using OFDM as the underlying physical layer. This post discuss the derivation of symbol error rate for a general…

We have quite a few articles discussing bit and symbol error rates for popular digital modulation schemes in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. This post summarizes the articles discussing the theoretical and simulated error rates for the digital modulation schemes like BPSK, QPSK, 4–PAM, 16PSK and 16QAM. Further, Bit Error Rate with Gray coded…

## Comparing BPSK, QPSK, 4PAM, 16QAM, 16PSK, 64QAM and 32PSK

I have written another article in DSPDesginLine.com. This article can be treated as the third post in the series aimed at understanding Shannon’s capacity equation. For the first two posts in the series are: 1. Understanding Shannon’s capacity equation 2. Bounds on Communication based on Shannon’s capacity The article summarizes the symbol error rate derivations…

## Binary to Gray code for 16QAM

In the previous post on Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK, I had claimed that “for a general M-QAM modulation the binary to Gray code conversion is bit more complicated“. However following a closer look, I realize that this is not so complicated. 🙂 The QAM scenario can be treated as independent PAM modulation…

## Article in DSPDesignLine.com: M-QAM symbol error

Its been a nice week for me, wherein I guest posted an article in DSPDesignLine.com. 🙂 The article derives the theoretical symbol error rate for M-QAM modulation. The theoretical results are further supplemented by Matlab/Octave simulation scripts. Those who are familiar with derivation of symbol error rate for 16-QAM modulation will find the equations easy…

## Comparing 16PSK vs 16QAM for symbol error rate

In two previous posts, we have derived theoretical symbol error rate for 16-QAM and 16-PSK modulation schemes. The links are: (a) Symbol error rate for 16-PSK (b) Symbol error rate for 16-QAM Given that we are transmitting the same number of constellation points in both 16-PSK and 16-QAM, let us try to understand the better…

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 16-QAM

Given that we have went over the symbol error probability for 4-PAM and symbol error rate for 4-QAM , let us extend the understanding to find the symbol error probability for 16-QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). Consider a typical 16-QAM modulation scheme where the alphabets (Refer example 5-37 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). are used.

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for QPSK (4-QAM) modulation

Given that we have discussed symbol error rate probability for a 4-PAM modulation, let us know focus on finding the symbol error probability for a QPSK (4-QAM) modulation scheme. Background Consider that the alphabets used for a QPSK (4-QAM) is (Refer example 5-35 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). Download free e-Book discussing theoretical and simulated error rates for…

## Scaling factor in QAM

When QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is used, typically one may find a scaling factor associated with the constellation mapping operation. It may be reasonably obvious that this scaling factor is for normalizing the average energy to one. This post attempts to compute the average energy of the 16-QAM, 64-QAM and M-QAM constellation (where is a…