Articles

Rayleigh multipath channel model

The article gives a quick overview of a simple statistical multipath channel model called Rayleigh fading channel model. Multipath environment In a multipath environment, it is reasonably intuitive to visualize that an impulse transmitted from transmitter will reach the receiver as a train of impulses.

Comparing BPSK, QPSK, 4PAM, 16QAM, 16PSK, 64QAM and 32PSK

I have written another article in DSPDesginLine.com. This article can be treated as the third post in the series aimed at understanding Shannon’s capacity equation. For the first two posts in the series are: 1. Understanding Shannon’s capacity equation 2. Bounds on Communication based on Shannonโs capacity The article summarizes the symbol error rate derivations…

Trying out PAPR reduction for OFDM by multiplication with j

In this post, we will explore a probable way of reducing PAPR (peak to average power ratio) in OFDM by changing the phase of some of the subcarriers. This is in response to the comment to post on Peak to Average power ratio for OFDM, where Mr. Elibom suggested to reduce the PAPR by cyclically…

Bounds on Communication based on Shannon’s capacity

This is the second post in the series aimed at developing a better understanding of Shannon’s capacity equation. In this post let us discuss the bounds on communication given the signal power and bandwidth constraint. Further, the following writeup is based on Section 12.6 from Fundamentals of Communication Systems by John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi

Understanding Shannon’s capacity equation

Let us try to understand the formula for Channel Capacity with an Average Power Limitation, described in Section 25 of the landmark paper A Mathematical Theory for Communication, by Mr. Claude Shannon. Further, the following writeup is based on Section 12.5.1 from Fundamentals of Communication Systems by John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi

BPSK BER with OFDM modulation

Oflate, I am getting frequent requests for bit error rate simulations using OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. In this post, we will discuss a simple OFDM transmitter and receiver, find the relation between Eb/No (Bit to Noise ratio) and Es/No (Signal to Noise ratio) and compute the bit error rate with BPSK.

16QAM Bit Error Rate (BER) with Gray mapping

Let us derive the theoretical 16QAM bit error rate (BER) with Gray coded constellation mapping in additive white Gaussian noise conditions. Further, the Matlab/Octave simulation script can be used to confirm that the simulation is in good agreement with theory.

Binary to Gray code for 16QAM

In the previous post on Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK, I had claimed that “for a general M-QAM modulation the binary to Gray code conversion is bit more complicated“. However following a closer look, I realize that this is not so complicated. ๐ The QAM scenario can be treated as independent PAM modulation…

Update: Correction in Matlab code for raised cosine filter

Thanks to the keen observation by Mr. Phan Minh Hoang, I was notified that the Matlab/Octave scripts provided along with the topic raised cosine filtering was not behaving properly. Reason: I was not taking care of the division by zero when creating the raised cosine filter taps. ๐

Article in DSPDesignLine.com: M-QAM symbol error

Its been a nice week for me, wherein I guest posted an article in DSPDesignLine.com. ๐ The article derives the theoretical symbol error rate for M-QAM modulation. The theoretical results are further supplemented by Matlab/Octave simulation scripts. Those who are familiar with derivation of symbol error rate for 16-QAM modulation will find the equations easy…

Bit error rate for 16PSK modulation using Gray mapping

In this post, let us derive the theoretical bit error probability for 16PSK modulation using Gray coded mapping. For deriving the equation, we will refer material from the following posts: (a) Symbol Error Rate for 16PSK (b) Gray code to Binary code conversion for PSK (c) Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK As discussed…

Gray code to Binary conversion for PSK and PAM

Given that we have discussed Binary to Gray code conversion, let us discuss the Gray to BInary conversion. Conversion from Gray code to natural Binary Let be the equivalent Gray code for an bit binary number with representing the index of the bit. 1. For , i.e, the most significant bit (MSB) of the Gray…

Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK and PAM

In this post, let us try to understand Gray codes and their usage in digital communication. Quoting from Wiki entry on Gray code [Gray-Wiki], The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank Gray, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one digit. In a digital communication system,…

OT: Migration to a Deep Blue template

After almost 6 months with the Smashing Theme template, its time for a change. Recently I stumbled upon the Deep Blue template from DailyBlogTips. I liked the clean blue-green-white combination and and felt it might be a good fit for www.dsplog.com. Hope you agree. One key feature which I like is addition of tag cloud…