Articles

## Minimum frequency spacing for having orthogonal sinusoidals

In this post, the objective is to figure out the minimum separation between two sinusoidals having frequencies , of duration each to be orthogonal. Let the phase difference between the sinusoidals is where can take any value from to (Refer Example 4.3 [DIG-COMM-SKLAR]). For the two sinuosidals to be orthogonal,

## Using CORDIC for phase and magnitude computation

In a previous post (here), we looked at using CORDIC (Co-ordinate Rotation by DIgital Computer) for understanding how a complex number can be rotated by an angle without using actual multipliers. Let us know try to understand how we can use CORDIC for finding the phase and magnitude of a complex number. Basics The CORDIC…

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 16-QAM

Given that we have went over the symbol error probability for 4-PAM and symbol error rate for 4-QAM , let us extend the understanding to find the symbol error probability for 16-QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). Consider a typical 16-QAM modulation scheme where the alphabets (Refer example 5-37 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). are used.

## Digital implementation of RC low pass filter

Thanks to the nice article from Xilinx TechXclusives [XLNX-TECH], let us try to understand the probable digital implementation of resistor-capacitor based low pass filter. Consider a simple RC filter shown in the figure below. Assuming that there is no load across the capacitor, the capacitor charges and discharges through the resistor path. Figure: RC low…

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for QPSK (4-QAM) modulation

Given that we have discussed symbol error rate probability for a 4-PAM modulation, let us know focus on finding the symbol error probability for a QPSK (4-QAM) modulation scheme. Background Consider that the alphabets used for a QPSK (4-QAM) is (Refer example 5-35 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). Download free e-Book discussing theoretical and simulated error rates for…

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 4-PAM

Following discussion of bit error rate (BER) for BPSK and bit error rate for FSK, it may be interesting to move on to discuss a higher order constellation such as Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM). Consider that the alphabets used for a 4-PAM is (Refer example 5-34 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]).

## Coherent demodulation of DBPSK

In a previous post, we discussed about a probable first order digital PLL for tracking constant phase offset. The assumption was that as the phase offset is small and the bits gets decoded correctly, the phase difference between the ideal and actual constellation gives the initial value of phase. However, in typical scenarios it may…

## Scaling factor in QAM

When QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is used, typically one may find a scaling factor associated with the constellation mapping operation. It may be reasonably obvious that this scaling factor is for normalizing the average energy to one. This post attempts to compute the average energy of the 16-QAM, 64-QAM and M-QAM constellation (where is a…

## Bit Error Rate (BER) for frequency shift keying with coherent demodulation

Following the request by Siti Naimah, this post discuss the bit error probability for coherent demodulation of binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) along with a small Matlab code snippet. Using the definition provided in Sec 4.4.4 of [DIG-COMM-SKLAR]), in binary Frequency shift keying (BFSK), the bits 0’s and 1’s are represented by signals and having…

## CORDIC for phase rotation

My understanding of the CORDIC (Co-ordinate Rotation by DIgital Computer) thanks to the nice article in [DSPGURU-CORDIC].

## Bit Error Rate (BER) for BPSK modulation

In this post, we will derive the theoretical equation for bit error rate (BER) with Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation scheme in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. The BER results obtained using Matlab/Octave simulation scripts show good agreement with the derived theoretical results. With Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), the binary digits 1…

## Straight line fit using least squares estimate

Two points suffice for drawing a straight line. However we may be presented with a set of data points (more than two?) presumably forming a straight line. How can one use the available set of data points to draw a straight line? A probable approach is to draw a straight line which hopefully minimizes the…

## Example of Cascaded Integrator Comb filter in Matlab

Equivalence of Moving Average and CIC filter Let me briefly share my understanding on the cascaded integrator comb (CIC) filter, thanks to the nice article. For understanding the cascaded integrator comb (CIC) filter, firstly let us understand the moving average filter, which is accumulation latest samples of an input sequence .

## Interpreting the output of fft() operation in Matlab

It might be interesting to interpret the output of the fft() function in Matlab. Consider the following simple examples. fsMHz = 20; % sampling frequency fcMHz = 1.5625; % signal frequency N = 128; % fft size % generating the time domain signal x1T = exp(j*2*pi*fcMHz*[0:N-1]/fsMHz); x1F = fft(x1T,N); % 128 pt FFT figure; plot([-N/2:N/2-1]*fsMHz/N,fftshift(abs(x1F)))…