## Oscillator phase noise

Oscillators are used in typical radio circuits to drive the mixer used for the up-conversion or down-conversion of the passband transmission. Ideally, the spectrum of the oscillator is expected to have an impulse at the frequency of oscillation with no frequency components else where. However the spectrum of practical oscillators do have spectrum skirts around…

## Thermal noise of RC low pass filter

This post discuss about the thermal noise in RC low pass filter. Using the noise equivalent model using resistor with a voltage source, which gets passed through a no noise RC low pass filter. The noise power at the output is computed by integrating the output voltage spectral density over all frequencies.

## ADC SNR with clock jitter and quantization noise

My friend and colleague Mr. Vineet Srivastava pointed me to a nice article on  clock jitter – Clock Jitter Effects on Sampling : A tutorial – by Carlos Azeredo-Leme, IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, Third Quarter 2011. In this post, let us discuss the total Signal to Noise Ratio at the output of an analog to…

## Weighted Least Squares and locally weighted linear regression

From the post on Closed Form Solution for Linear regression, we computed the parameter vector  which minimizes the square of the error between the predicted value  and the actual output  for all  values in the training set. In that model all the  values in the training set is given equal importance.  Let us consider the case where it is known…

## Least Squares in Gaussian Noise – Maximum Likelihood

From the previous posts on Linear Regression (using Batch Gradient descent, Stochastic Gradient Descent, Closed form solution), we discussed couple of different ways to estimate the  parameter vector in the least square error sense for the given training set. However, how does the least square error criterion work when the training set is corrupted by…

## Symbol Error rate for QAM (16, 64, 256,.., M-QAM)

In May 2008, we derived the theoretical symbol error rate for a general M-QAM modulation (in  Embedded.com, DSPDesignLine.com and dsplog.com) under Additive White Gaussian Noise. While re-reading that post, felt that the article is nice and warrants a re-run, using OFDM as the underlying physical layer. This post discuss the derivation of symbol error rate for a general…

## Newton’s method to find square root, inverse

Some of us would have used Newton’s method (also known as Newton-Raphson method) in some form or other. The method has quite a bit of history,  starting with the Babylonian way of finding the square root and later over centuries reaching the present recursive way of finding the solution. In this post, we will describe…

## Closed form solution for linear regression

In the previous post on Batch Gradient Descent and Stochastic Gradient Descent, we looked at two iterative methods for finding the parameter vector  which minimizes the square of the error between the predicted value  and the actual output  for all  values in the training set. A closed form solution for finding the parameter vector  is possible, and in this post…