Articles

## Interpreting the output of fft() operation in Matlab

It might be interesting to interpret the output of the fft() function in Matlab. Consider the following simple examples. fsMHz = 20; % sampling frequency fcMHz = 1.5625; % signal frequency N = 128; % fft size % generating the time domain signal x1T = exp(j*2*pi*fcMHz*[0:N-1]/fsMHz); x1F = fft(x1T,N); % 128 pt FFT figure; plot([-N/2:N/2-1]*fsMHz/N,fftshift(abs(x1F)))…

## Objective

The blog attempts to provide and collect information on digital signal processing algorithms and implementation.

## Weighted Least Squares and locally weighted linear regression

From the post on Closed Form Solution for Linear regression, we computed the parameter vector  which minimizes the square of the error between the predicted value  and the actual output  for all  values in the training set. In that model all the  values in the training set is given equal importance.  Let us consider the case where it is known…

## Bit error rate for 16PSK modulation using Gray mapping

In this post, let us derive the theoretical bit error probability for 16PSK modulation using Gray coded mapping. For deriving the equation, we will refer material from the following posts: (a) Symbol Error Rate for 16PSK (b) Gray code to Binary code conversion for PSK (c) Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK As discussed…

## Selection Diversity

This is the first post in the series discussing receiver diversity in a wireless link. Receiver diversity is a form of space diversity, where there are multiple antennas at the receiver. The presence of receiver diversity poses an interesting problem – how do we use ‘effectively‘ the information from all the antennas to demodulate the…

## Understanding an OFDM transmission

Let us try to understand simulation of a typical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission defined per IEEE 802.11a specification. Orthogonal pulses In a previous post (here ), we have understood that the minimum frequency separation for two sinusoidals with arbitrary phases to be orthogonal is , where is the symbol period. In Orthogonal Frequency…

## MIMO with Zero Forcing equalizer

We had discussed three Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO also known as receive diversity) schemes – Selection combining, Equal Gain Combining, Maximal Ratio Combining and a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO, also known as transmit diversity) scheme – Alamouti 2×1 STBC. Let us now discuss the case where there a multiple transmit antennas and multiple…

## Books

Happy holidays! 🙂 Wishing every one merry Christmas and a great year 2009 and beyond. I will list down some of the books which I have on my desk. They help me with the math and simulations Digital Communication: Third Edition, by John R. Barry, Edward A. Lee, David G. Messerschmitt

## MIMO with Zero Forcing Successive Interference Cancellation equalizer

The post on MIMO with Zero Forcing equalizer discussed a probable way of equalizing a 2×2 MIMO channel. The simulated results with the 2×2 MIMO system with zero forcing equalizer showed matching results as obtained in for a 1×1 system for BPSK modulation in Rayleigh channel. In this post, we will try to improve the…

## Linear to log conversion

In signal processing blocks like power estimation used in digital communication, it may be required to represent the estimate in log scale. This post explains a simple linear to log conversion scheme proposed in the DSP Guru column on DSP Trick: Quick-and-Dirty Logarithms. The scheme makes implementation of a linear to log conversion simple and…

## Hamming (7,4) code with hard decision decoding

In previous posts, we have discussed convolutional codes with Viterbi decoding (hard decision, soft decision and with finite traceback). Let us know discuss a block coding scheme where a group of information bits is mapped into coded bits. Such codes are referred to as codes. We will restrict the discussion to Hamming codes, where 4…

## MIMO with MMSE equalizer

In a previous post, we had discussed a 2×2 MIMO transmission using BPSK modulation in Rayleigh channel with a Zero Forcing equalizer. The simulated results with the 2×2 MIMO system  with zero forcing equalizer showed matching results as obtained in for a 1×1 system for BPSK modulation in Rayleigh channel. In this post, we will…

## Transmit beamforming

In this post lets discuss a closed-loop transmit diversity scheme, where the transmitter has the knowledge of the channel. As there is a feedback path required from the receiver, to communicate the channel seen by the receiver to the transmitter, the scheme is called closed-loop transmit diversity scheme. Recall that the transmit diversity using Space…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q15 (communication)

Question 15 on communication from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q15. A source alphabet consists of N symbols with the probability of the first two symbols being the same. A source encoder increases the probability of the first symbol by a small amount  and decreases that of the…