Articles

## GATE-2012 ECE Q6 (digital)

Question 6 on digital circuit from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q6. Consider the given circuit In this circuit, the race around (A) does not occur (B) occurs when CLK=0 (C) occurs when CLK=1 and A=B=1 (D) occurs when CLK=1 and A=B=0

## Negative Frequency

Last week, I received an email from Mr. Kishore. He was wondering about the physical significance of negative frequency. Does negative frequency really exist? Though I have seen conflicting views on the net (thread in complextoreal.com, thread in comp.dsp), my perspective is that negative frequency exist. The concept of negative frequency helps me a lot…

## Happy Birthday – dspLog

An important milestone for the dspLog happened on Oct 21st 2008. On this day last year, the blog migrated from the Blogger platform to the independently hosted platform at www.dsplog.com ! Belated birthday wishes for the blog!!! 🙂 Looking back, the first year was satisfying – both in terms of contents and traffic. We started…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q38 (communication)

Question 38 on Communication from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q38. A binary symmetric channel (BSC) has a transition probability of 1/8. If the binary transmit symbol X is such that P(X=0)=9/10, then the probability of error for an optimum receiver will be (A) 7/80 (B) 63/80 (C)…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q16 (electromagnetics)

Question 16 on electromagnetics from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q16. A coaxial cable with an inner diameter of 1mm and outer diameter of 2.4mm is filled with a dielectric of relative permittivity 10.89. Given ,  the characteristic impedance of the cable is (A)  (B)  (C)  (D)  Solution To…

## Interpreting the output of fft() operation in Matlab

It might be interesting to interpret the output of the fft() function in Matlab. Consider the following simple examples. fsMHz = 20; % sampling frequency fcMHz = 1.5625; % signal frequency N = 128; % fft size % generating the time domain signal x1T = exp(j*2*pi*fcMHz*[0:N-1]/fsMHz); x1F = fft(x1T,N); % 128 pt FFT figure; plot([-N/2:N/2-1]*fsMHz/N,fftshift(abs(x1F)))…

## Back!

Am getting ready to be back posting frequently. Please see below the top 50 articles of this blog based on the pageviews in the month of September 2011 (used Google Analytics to pick up this data).

## Comparing BPSK, QPSK, 4PAM, 16QAM, 16PSK, 64QAM and 32PSK

I have written another article in DSPDesginLine.com. This article can be treated as the third post in the series aimed at understanding Shannon’s capacity equation. For the first two posts in the series are: 1. Understanding Shannon’s capacity equation 2. Bounds on Communication based on Shannon’s capacity The article summarizes the symbol error rate derivations…

## OT: Happy Schools Blog

Mr. Raghuram contacted me and informed about Happy Schools Blog. He writes about Graduate School Admission in U.S., Job opportunities for students, University Selection based on his personal experience. He recently published few articles which might of interest to some of our readers. Here are the URL for few articles:

## GATE-2012 ECE Q52 (electromagnetics)

Question 52 on electromagnetics from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. An infinitely long uniform solid wire of radius  carries a uniform dc current of density . Q52. The magnetic field at a distance  from the center of the wire is proportional to (A)  for and for (B)  for  and  for  (C)  for  and  for  (D)  for  and  for  Solution…

## Join dspLog at Google FriendConnect

We have installed Google FriendConnect on dspLog.com. With Google Friend Connect, you can: (a) You can interact with other members who have similiar interests. You will come to know the list of other sites (apart from dspLog.com) where the members have joined. You can add a member as a friend and so on. (b) You…

## Zero-order hold and first-order hold based interpolation

In problem 9.14 of DSP-Proakis, the objective is to analyze the effect of zero-order interpolation and first-order interpolation to double the number of samples in the sinusoidal while keeping the sampling frequency unchanged. My take: The first part of the problem (a) is to generate the sequence having half the frequency of . For zero-order…

## Using Toeplitz matrices in MATLAB

The definition of Toeplitz matrix from [1] is: A matrix is said to be Toeplitz if the elements are determined completely by the difference .

## Update : Correction to solution of GATE-2012 ECE Q38

Thanks to Mr. Raghava G D’s comments on the post discussing Question 38 on Communication from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper, realized that I had made an error in the solution. Have the updated the post with the right answer and additional explanations.