Articles

## Derivation of BPSK BER in Rayleigh channel

This is a guest post by Jose Antonio Urigüen who is an Electrical and Electronic Engineer currently studying an MSc in Communications and Signal Processing at Imperial College in London. This guest post has been created due to his own curiosity when reviewing some concepts of BER for BPSK in Rayleigh channnel published in the…

## OCW: Communication System Design

While browsing through the web for materials on the wireless communication and implementation, found this rich set of articles as part of MIT OPEN COURSEWARE program. The course is from Vladimir Stojanovic, course materials for 6.973 Communication System Design, Spring 2006. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

## Join dspLog at Google FriendConnect

We have installed Google FriendConnect on dspLog.com. With Google Friend Connect, you can: (a) You can interact with other members who have similiar interests. You will come to know the list of other sites (apart from dspLog.com) where the members have joined. You can add a member as a friend and so on. (b) You…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q2 (communication)

Question 52 on communication from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q2. The power spectral density of a real process for positive frequencies is shown below. The values of  and , respectively are (A)  (B)  (C)  (D)  Solution For a wide sense stationary function, the auto-correlation with delay  is defined as,…

## BPSK BER with OFDM modulation

Oflate, I am getting frequent requests for bit error rate simulations using OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. In this post, we will discuss a simple OFDM transmitter and receiver, find the relation between Eb/No (Bit to Noise ratio) and Es/No (Signal to Noise ratio) and compute the bit error rate with BPSK.

## BER with Matched Filtering

In the post on transmit pulse shaping filter, we had discussed pulse shaping using rectangular and sinc. In this post we will discuss about optimal receiver structure when pulse shaping is used at the transmitter. The receiver structure is also called as matched filter. For the discussion, we will assume rectangular pulse shaping, the channel…

## Rayleigh multipath channel model

The article gives a quick overview of a simple statistical multipath channel model called Rayleigh fading channel model. Multipath environment In a multipath environment, it is reasonably intuitive to visualize that an impulse transmitted from transmitter will reach the receiver as a train of impulses.

## Frequency offset estimation using 802.11a short preamble

From the previous post on OFDM (here), we have understood that an OFDM waveform is made of sum of multiple sinusoidals (also called subcarriers) each modulated independently. In this post, let us try to understand the estimation of frequency offset in a typical OFDM receiver (using the short preamble specified per IEEE 802.11a specification as…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q25 (math)

Question 25 on math from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q25. If , then the value of  is, (a)  (b)  (c) (d) 1

## Six equalizers for V-BLAST

In the past, we had discussed several posts on two transmit two receive MIMO communication, where the transmission was based on V-BLAST. The details about V-BLAST can be read from the landmark paper V-BLAST: An architeture for realizing very high data rates over the rich scattering wireless channel – P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini,…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q13 (circuits)

Question 13 on analog electronics from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q13. The diodes and the capacitors in the circuit shown are ideal. The voltage  across the diode  is (A)  (B)   (C)  (D) Solution The first half of the circuit is a negative clamper circuit and the second half…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q26 (electronic devices)

Question 26 on Electronic Devices from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q26. The source of a silicon (), n-channel MOS transistor has an area of and a depth of  . If the dopant density in the source is , the number of holes in the source region with…

## Symbol Error Rate for 16PSK

In this post, let us try to derive the symbol error rate for 16-PSK (16-Phase Shift Keying) modulation. Consider a general M-PSK modulation, where the alphabets, are used. (Refer example 5-38 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]) Figure: 16-PSK constellation plot

## Chi Square Random Variable

While trying to derive the theoretical bit error rate (BER) for BPSK modulation in a Rayleigh fading channel, I realized that I need to discuss chi square random variable prior. What is chi-square random variable? Let there be independent and identically distributed Gaussian random variables with mean and variance and we form a new random…