Articles

## Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK and PAM

In this post, let us try to understand Gray codes and their usage in digital communication. Quoting from Wiki entry on Gray code [Gray-Wiki], The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank Gray, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one digit. In a digital communication system,…

## Comparing 16PSK vs 16QAM for symbol error rate

In two previous posts, we have derived theoretical symbol error rate for 16-QAM and 16-PSK modulation schemes. The links are: (a) Symbol error rate for 16-PSK (b) Symbol error rate for 16-QAM Given that we are transmitting the same number of constellation points in both 16-PSK and 16-QAM, let us try to understand the better…

## Symbol Error Rate for 16PSK

In this post, let us try to derive the symbol error rate for 16-PSK (16-Phase Shift Keying) modulation. Consider a general M-PSK modulation, where the alphabets, are used. (Refer example 5-38 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]) Figure: 16-PSK constellation plot

## Simulating Minimum Shift Keying Transmitter

Minimum shift keying (MSK) is an important concept to learn in digital communications. It is a form of continuous phase frequency shift keying . In minimum phase shift keying, two key concepts are used. (a) The frequency separation of the sinusoidals used for representing bits 1’s and 0’s are , where is the symbol period….

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 16-QAM

Given that we have went over the symbol error probability for 4-PAM and symbol error rate for 4-QAM , let us extend the understanding to find the symbol error probability for 16-QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). Consider a typical 16-QAM modulation scheme where the alphabets (Refer example 5-37 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). are used.

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for QPSK (4-QAM) modulation

Given that we have discussed symbol error rate probability for a 4-PAM modulation, let us know focus on finding the symbol error probability for a QPSK (4-QAM) modulation scheme. Background Consider that the alphabets used for a QPSK (4-QAM) is (Refer example 5-35 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). Download free e-Book discussing theoretical and simulated error rates for…

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 4-PAM

Following discussion of bit error rate (BER) for BPSK and bit error rate for FSK, it may be interesting to move on to discuss a higher order constellation such as Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM). Consider that the alphabets used for a 4-PAM is (Refer example 5-34 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]).

## Coherent demodulation of DBPSK

In a previous post, we discussed about a probable first order digital PLL for tracking constant phase offset. The assumption was that as the phase offset is small and the bits gets decoded correctly, the phase difference between the ideal and actual constellation gives the initial value of phase. However, in typical scenarios it may…

## Scaling factor in QAM

When QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is used, typically one may find a scaling factor associated with the constellation mapping operation. It may be reasonably obvious that this scaling factor is for normalizing the average energy to one. This post attempts to compute the average energy of the 16-QAM, 64-QAM and M-QAM constellation (where is a…

## Bit Error Rate (BER) for frequency shift keying with coherent demodulation

Following the request by Siti Naimah, this post discuss the bit error probability for coherent demodulation of binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) along with a small Matlab code snippet. Using the definition provided in Sec 4.4.4 of [DIG-COMM-SKLAR]), in binary Frequency shift keying (BFSK), the bits 0’s and 1’s are represented by signals and having…

## Bit Error Rate (BER) for BPSK modulation

In this post, we will derive the theoretical equation for bit error rate (BER) with Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation scheme in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. The BER results obtained using Matlab/Octave simulation scripts show good agreement with the derived theoretical results. With Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), the binary digits 1…