## MIMO with MMSE equalizer

In a previous post, we had discussed a 2×2 MIMO transmission using BPSK modulation in Rayleigh channel with a Zero Forcing equalizer. The simulated results with the 2×2 MIMO system  with zero forcing equalizer showed matching results as obtained in for a 1×1 system for BPSK modulation in Rayleigh channel. In this post, we will…

For curve fitting using linear regression, there exists a minor variant of Batch Gradient Descent algorithm, called Stochastic Gradient Descent. In the Batch Gradient Descent, the parameter vector  is updated as, . (loop over all elements of training set in one iteration) For Stochastic Gradient Descent, the vector gets updated as, at each iteration the…

## Update : Correction to solution of GATE-2012 ECE Q38

Thanks to Mr. Raghava G D’s comments on the post discussing Question 38 on Communication from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper, realized that I had made an error in the solution. Have the updated the post with the right answer and additional explanations.

## Sigma delta modulation

In an earlier post, it was mentioned that delta modulator without the quantizer is identical to convolving an input sequence with . Let us first try to validate that thought using a small MATLAB example and using the delta modulator circuit shown in Figure 9.13a of DSP-Proakis . % delta modulation xn = sin(2*pi*1/64*[0:63]); xhatn…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q16 (electromagnetics)

Question 16 on electromagnetics from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q16. A coaxial cable with an inner diameter of 1mm and outer diameter of 2.4mm is filled with a dielectric of relative permittivity 10.89. Given ,  the characteristic impedance of the cable is (A)  (B)  (C)  (D)  Solution To…

## Approximate Vector Magnitude Computation

In this post, let us discuss a simple implementation friendly scheme for computing the absolute value of a complex number . The technique called (alpha Max + beta Min) algorithm is discussed in Chapter 13.2 of Understanding Digital Signal Processing, Richard Lyons and is also available online at Digital Signal Processing Tricks – High-speed vector…

## dspLog turns two! Happy Birthday!

As on 21st October 2007, we moved from blogspot domain at  to the self hosted domain at https://dsplog.com. Over the last two years, the blog has grown quite a bit, and am reasonably happy with the progress. Let us look back at the positives and negatives over the last year.

## Simulating Minimum Shift Keying Transmitter

Minimum shift keying (MSK) is an important concept to learn in digital communications. It is a form of continuous phase frequency shift keying . In minimum phase shift keying, two key concepts are used. (a) The frequency separation of the sinusoidals used for representing bits 1’s and 0’s are , where is the symbol period….

## Transmit pulse shaping filter – rectangular and sinc (Nyquist)

In the previous post on I-Q modulator and de-modulator, we had briefly mentioned that the a baseband PAM transmission can be modelled as , where is the symbol period, is the symbol to transmit, is the transmit filter, is the symbol index and is the output waveform. In this post, the objective is to understand…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q3 (communication)

Question 3 on Communication from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q3. In a baseband communications link, frequencies upto 3500Hz are used for signalling. Using a raised cosine pulse with 75% excess bandwidth and for no inter-symbol interference, the maximum possible signaling rate in symbols per second is, (A)…

## Bounds on Communication based on Shannon’s capacity

This is the second post in the series aimed at developing a better understanding of Shannon’s capacity equation. In this post let us discuss the bounds on communication given the signal power and bandwidth constraint. Further, the following writeup is based on Section 12.6 from Fundamentals of Communication Systems by John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi

## Alamouti STBC

In the recent past, we have discussed three receive diversity schemes – Selection combining, Equal Gain Combining and Maximal Ratio Combining. All the three approaches used the antenna array at the receiver to improve the demodulation performance, albeit with different levels of complexity. Time to move on to a transmit diversity scheme where the information…

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for QPSK (4-QAM) modulation

Given that we have discussed symbol error rate probability for a 4-PAM modulation, let us know focus on finding the symbol error probability for a QPSK (4-QAM) modulation scheme. Background Consider that the alphabets used for a QPSK (4-QAM) is (Refer example 5-35 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). Download free e-Book discussing theoretical and simulated error rates for…