Articles

## Transmit spectrum with phase noise

The earlier posts on phase noise discussed about phase noise in oscillators, conversion of phase noise profile to jitter and the impact of phase noise on the error vector magnitude (evm). This post discuss the impact of phase noise on the spectrum of the transmit waveform.  A simple random QPSK modulated symbols, oversampled and passed…

## Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK and PAM

In this post, let us try to understand Gray codes and their usage in digital communication. Quoting from Wiki entry on Gray code [Gray-Wiki], The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank Gray, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one digit. In a digital communication system,…

## Comparing 16PSK vs 16QAM for symbol error rate

In two previous posts, we have derived theoretical symbol error rate for 16-QAM and 16-PSK modulation schemes. The links are: (a) Symbol error rate for 16-PSK (b) Symbol error rate for 16-QAM Given that we are transmitting the same number of constellation points in both 16-PSK and 16-QAM, let us try to understand the better…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q2 (communication)

Question 52 on communication from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q2. The power spectral density of a real process for positive frequencies is shown below. The values of  and , respectively are (A)  (B)  (C)  (D)  Solution For a wide sense stationary function, the auto-correlation with delay  is defined as,…

## Alamouti STBC

In the recent past, we have discussed three receive diversity schemes – Selection combining, Equal Gain Combining and Maximal Ratio Combining. All the three approaches used the antenna array at the receiver to improve the demodulation performance, albeit with different levels of complexity. Time to move on to a transmit diversity scheme where the information…

## Transmit pulse shaping filter – rectangular and sinc (Nyquist)

In the previous post on I-Q modulator and de-modulator, we had briefly mentioned that the a baseband PAM transmission can be modelled as , where is the symbol period, is the symbol to transmit, is the transmit filter, is the symbol index and is the output waveform. In this post, the objective is to understand…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q15 (communication)

Question 15 on communication from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q15. A source alphabet consists of N symbols with the probability of the first two symbols being the same. A source encoder increases the probability of the first symbol by a small amount  and decreases that of the…

## Happy New Year 2010

Wishing all the readers of dsplog.com a great year 2010 ! Its been a mixed year for dsplog. Some key milestones a) Crossing 1000 subscribers with 1100+ comments in March 2009 b) Crossing 100 posts with 2200 subscribers and 2600+ comments in October 2009 c) As I write this, we have 102 posts with 2603…

## Trying out LaTeX on Blogspot

Quick check of on Blogspot, thanks to the information provided here. Good ! It works…would like to have a better formatting though. Anyhow this will do for now.

## Support Vibha’s Dream Mile event

My friend Mr. Balaji volunteers for Vibha, a non-profit  organization whose mission is to ensure that every underprivileged child attains his or her right to education, health and opportunity. Vibha, which was founded in 1991 has a volunteer network of 825 members spread across Atlanta, Austin, Bay Area, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Jacksonville, Los Angeles,…

## GATE-2012 ECE Q16 (electromagnetics)

Question 16 on electromagnetics from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q16. A coaxial cable with an inner diameter of 1mm and outer diameter of 2.4mm is filled with a dielectric of relative permittivity 10.89. Given ,  the characteristic impedance of the cable is (A)  (B)  (C)  (D)  Solution To…

## Approximate Vector Magnitude Computation

In this post, let us discuss a simple implementation friendly scheme for computing the absolute value of a complex number . The technique called (alpha Max + beta Min) algorithm is discussed in Chapter 13.2 of Understanding Digital Signal Processing, Richard Lyons and is also available online at Digital Signal Processing Tricks – High-speed vector…

## Using Toeplitz matrices in MATLAB

The definition of Toeplitz matrix from [1] is: A matrix is said to be Toeplitz if the elements are determined completely by the difference .

## Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 4-PAM

Following discussion of bit error rate (BER) for BPSK and bit error rate for FSK, it may be interesting to move on to discuss a higher order constellation such as Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM). Consider that the alphabets used for a 4-PAM is (Refer example 5-34 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]).