GATE-2012 ECE Q36 (math)

Question 36 on math from GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2012 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper. Q36. A fair coin is tossed till a head appears for the first time. The probability that the number of required tosses is odd, is (A) 1/3 (B) 1/2 (C) 2/3 (D) 3/4 Solution Let us start by…

Read More

Negative Frequency

Last week, I received an email from Mr. Kishore. He was wondering about the physical significance of negative frequency. Does negative frequency really exist? Though I have seen conflicting views on the net (thread in complextoreal.com, thread in comp.dsp), my perspective is that negative frequency exist. The concept of negative frequency helps me a lot…

Read More

Symbol Error Rate (SER) for QPSK (4-QAM) modulation

Given that we have discussed symbol error rate probability for a 4-PAM modulation, let us know focus on finding the symbol error probability for a QPSK (4-QAM) modulation scheme. Background Consider that the alphabets used for a QPSK (4-QAM) is (Refer example 5-35 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]). Download free e-Book discussing theoretical and simulated error rates for…

Read More