Articles

## Transmit pulse shaping filter – rectangular and sinc (Nyquist)

In the previous post on I-Q modulator and de-modulator, we had briefly mentioned that the a baseband PAM transmission can be modelled as , where is the symbol period, is the symbol to transmit, is the transmit filter, is the symbol index and is the output waveform. In this post, the objective is to understand…

## Need for I-Q modulator and demodulator

Post describes about the need for I-Q modulation by comparing the spectral efficiency of passband PAM and passband QAM.

## Comparing 16PSK vs 16QAM for symbol error rate

In two previous posts, we have derived theoretical symbol error rate for 16-QAM and 16-PSK modulation schemes. The links are: (a) Symbol error rate for 16-PSK (b) Symbol error rate for 16-QAM Given that we are transmitting the same number of constellation points in both 16-PSK and 16-QAM, let us try to understand the better…

## Blog on DSP

I happened to visit ‘The Digital Signal Processing Blog’, maintained by Mr. Andres Kwasinski, Ph. D. In the blog one can find details about the upcoming IEEE conferences pertaining to communication and multimedia processing. Further, in some of the posts, author shares his thoughts on topics like fixed point arithmetic (here) and wavelets (here) etc….

## Symbol Error Rate for 16PSK

In this post, let us try to derive the symbol error rate for 16-PSK (16-Phase Shift Keying) modulation. Consider a general M-PSK modulation, where the alphabets, are used. (Refer example 5-38 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]) Figure: 16-PSK constellation plot

## Frequency offset estimation using 802.11a short preamble

From the previous post on OFDM (here), we have understood that an OFDM waveform is made of sum of multiple sinusoidals (also called subcarriers) each modulated independently. In this post, let us try to understand the estimation of frequency offset in a typical OFDM receiver (using the short preamble specified per IEEE 802.11a specification as…

## Peak to Average Power Ratio for OFDM

Let us try to understand peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and its typical value in an OFDM system specified per IEEE 802.11a specifications. What is PAPR? The peak to average power ratio for a signal is defined as , where corresponds to the conjugate operator. Expressing in deciBels, .

## Cylcic prefix in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

In a previous post (here), we discussed in brief, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission. Let us know probe bit more into the motivation of cyclic prefix (aka guard interval) associated with each OFDM symbol. What is cyclic prefix? Let us consider one subcarrier (subcarrier +1 specified in IEEE 802.11a specification) alone. In the figure…

## Understanding an OFDM transmission

Let us try to understand simulation of a typical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission defined per IEEE 802.11a specification. Orthogonal pulses In a previous post (here ), we have understood that the minimum frequency separation for two sinusoidals with arbitrary phases to be orthogonal is , where is the symbol period. In Orthogonal Frequency…

## Simulating Minimum Shift Keying Transmitter

Minimum shift keying (MSK) is an important concept to learn in digital communications. It is a form of continuous phase frequency shift keying . In minimum phase shift keying, two key concepts are used. (a) The frequency separation of the sinusoidals used for representing bits 1’s and 0’s are , where is the symbol period….