## Bounds on Communication based on Shannon’s capacity

This is the second post in the series aimed at developing a better understanding of Shannon’s capacity equation. In this post let us discuss the bounds on communication given the signal power and bandwidth constraint. Further, the following writeup is based on Section 12.6 from Fundamentals of Communication Systems by John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi

## Understanding Shannon’s capacity equation

Let us try to understand the formula for Channel Capacity with an Average Power Limitation, described in Section 25 of the landmark paper A Mathematical Theory for Communication, by Mr. Claude Shannon. Further, the following writeup is based on Section 12.5.1 from Fundamentals of Communication Systems by John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi

## BPSK BER with OFDM modulation

Oflate, I am getting frequent requests for bit error rate simulations using OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. In this post, we will discuss a simple OFDM transmitter and receiver, find the relation between Eb/No (Bit to Noise ratio) and Es/No (Signal to Noise ratio) and compute the bit error rate with BPSK.

## Binary to Gray code for 16QAM

In the previous post on Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK, I had claimed that “for a general M-QAM modulation the binary to Gray code conversion is bit more complicated“. However following a closer look, I realize that this is not so complicated. 🙂 The QAM scenario can be treated as independent PAM modulation…